Periodic Table Of The Elements JERIES A.
This site has ten pages, excluding
the homepage, and displays four different extensions for the periodic
table: primarily concerning the issue of the placement of the g-block
elements. One of these four placements could be scientifically correct.
Which one among these four extensions, or placements, is correct and what
are your scientific justificationons for your choice?
physicists speculate that a number of stable, superheavy elements may
exist-- elements with atomic numbers as heavy as 164, or higher, but no
evidence has yet been found for such elements." Funk & Wagnalls
New Encyclopedia, edition MCMLXXXVI, vol 9, page 183.
"It is probable, in a
formal sense at least, that element 122 will begin another series of
elements in which each successive electron is added to a deep inner
orbital, in a manner similar [see periodic table] to that found in the
lanthanide and actinide series. Such a series, which would be listed in a
row below the actinide series in the periodic table, should consist of 32
elements, ending in the neighbourhood of element 153 and resulting
primarily from the filling of the 5g and 6f inner electron shells.
"Not every element of
this new series would correspond to an actinide (or lanthanide) element on
a one-to-one basis, and prediction of the chemistry of the members of the
series is a complex problem. The difficulty arises partly because of
uncertainty of the exact point at which the energetically similar 5g and
6f orbitals begin to fill and partly because calculations indicate that
the 8p and 7d orbitals may be very close in energy to the 5g and 6f
orbitals. These orbitals may all be filled, then, in a commingling
fashion, resulting in a series of elements that show multiple, barely
distinguishable oxidation states. The electronic basis for the periodicity
shown in the [periodic table] would then no longer be present.
"As shown, element 153
will be the last member of the super-actinide series, at least in a formal
sense. The prediction of properties on the basis of an orderly
extrapolation appears to be of doubtful validity, however, in this
heavy-element region of the periodic table. In still higher-numbered
elements, the closely spaced energy levels are expected to make multiple
oxidation states the rule. The placement of the elements in the heaviest
portion of the periodic table as shown in the [periodic table] is,
therefore, probably also of only formal significance." Transuranium
Elements, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1999-2000, (Britannica.com).
End Of The Periodic Table !
"At some point the
stability of the orbital electrons in the ordinary sense must be destroyed
as more protons are added to the nucleus. There is, therefore, a critical
atomic number, or range of atomic numbers, which represents the end of the
periodic table. This end, it should be noted, is separate, at least
philosophically, from the question of stability of the nucleus itself;
i.e., nuclear stability is not the same as stability of the electron
shells. The maximum atomic number, according to current theories, lies
somewhere between 170 and 210. However, in a practical sense, the end of
the periodic table will come much earlier than this because of nuclear
instability (perhaps at or before Z = 120)." Transuranium Elements,
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1999-2000, (Britannica.com).
Stability Of Atomic Nucleus
".. why doesn't the
concentration of positive electric charge in the nucleus of an atom blow
the nucleus apart? Because there is an even stronger force, the strong
nuclear force, which overwhelms the electric repulsion on the scale of an
atomic nucleus, and holds the nucleons (both protons and neutrons feel the
strong force) together. This force does not obey an inverse square law.
The force which acts to hold neutrons and protons together in nuclei is
actually a vestige of a deeper force, operating within nucleons. This is
the true strong interaction, which actually operates directly between
quarks, through the exchange of gluons. It has a limited range because
gluons have mass (unlike the photons which carry the electromagnetic
force, or the gravitons which carry gravity). The range of force carriers
like gluons is inversely proportional to their mass, so the more mass they
have, the shorter is their range. The force leaks out of individual
nucleons to influence the particles next door, but cannot reach outside
the nucleus (in a roughly similar way, the overall electric charge on a
proton or a neutron is actually the sum of the charges on its constituent
quarks; but in that case, provided there is an overall charge, its
influence tails off only as the inverse square of distance). The strong
force is about 100 times stronger than the electromagnetic force, and as
you might expect from this the heaviest stable nuclei have just under 100
protons in each nucleus (plutonium has 94). Add any more, and the overall
electrical repulsion (which does add up if all the charges are the same)
will overwhelm the strong force, which only operates between next-door
nucleons." John Gribbon, Q is for QUANTUM, An Encyclopedia of
Particle Physics, first edition, page 143, THE FREE PRESS, Simon &
Shuster Inc., 1998
An Island Of Stability
"In January  a team
of Russian and American physicists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear
Research at Dubna, Russia, announced the creation of element 114. The
physicists were able to produce just a single atom of the new element, an
isotope containing 114 protons and 184 neutrons in its nucleus. Element
114 lasted an unprecedented 'stable' 30 seconds, long enough to enable its
detection, before breaking down (decaying) into lighter elements. Until
this discovery, 'superheavy' elements found had been unstable, with
lifetimes measured in fractions of a second. For example, element 112, the
last element discovered, has a life of just 280 milliseconds. The heavier
the element, it seemed, the shorter its life.
"But for the last 30
years, theorists had predicted the existence of 'an island of stability'
occurring among the heavier elements - a group of stable elements living
long enough to allow for studies of their nuclear behavior and chemistry.
The significance of element 114 is its confirmation that scientists have
finally landed upon the shores of the 'island of stability' they had only
hypothesized about." Donal O'Leary, http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0779259.html
Electron Configuration Of
"It is important to
realize that the concept of an electronic configuration is an approximate
one. It can neither be theoretically predicted with certainty nor can it
be experimentally observed. This is quite apart from the fact that samples
of 117 and elements like it are so unstable. Indirect evidence for the
electronic configuration could in principle be provided by the spectrum of
the element. I am not aware of spectral observations on any elements
beyond about Z = 100. I would be interested to hear if this has been done
and in which cases. Of course we can make educated guesses for
configurations of very heavy atoms, guided by the periodic table, but
that's all they are, guesses. There is also the complicating factor of
relativistic effects in very heavy atoms due to very rapidly moving inner
electrons. Relativistic quantum mechanical calculations have provided some
predictions but again we cannot confirm them yet. So the next time you see
a detailed configuration of any element beyond about 105 bear in mind that
this is somewhat hypothetical." Dr. Eric Scerri, UCLA, Chemistry
Department, (Message 397, dated 10/28/2000, The Periodic Table Yahoo!
Results Of Element 118
Experiment Retracted !
"The team of Berkeley Lab
scientists that announced two years ago the observation of what appeared
to be Element 118 -- heaviest undiscovered transuranic element at the time
-- has retracted its original paper after several confirmation experiments
failed to reproduce the results." Berkeley Lab, CA, July 27,2001.
V. Rydnik in his book ABC OF
QUANTUM MECHANICS is certain the last number in our list of building atoms
is 120. "This means that the nuclei (and the atoms as well,
naturally) cannot, under any circumstances, have more than about 120
protons." V. Rydnik, ABC OF QUANTUM MECHANICS, translated from the
Russian by George Yankovsky, 3rd printing, pages 203-204, Mir Publishers,